Based on its highly successful parent text, this comprehensive, practical text provides its readers with step-by-step guidance for teaching children in grades 4 to 8 all major aspects of reading and writing. In response to today's needs to tailor instruction for the middle grades (4-8), this new text features sample lessons for virtually every major literacy skill/strategy and offers numerous reinforcement suggestions and generous listings of materials appropriate for the middle grades. The text presents the theories behind the methods, so readers will be free to choose, adapt, and/or construct their own approaches as they create a balanced evidence-based program of literacy instruction. Because understanding one's own literacy processes can lead to more effective teaching, the text invites readers to examine their reading and writing processes. Because language is the basis for literacy, the text emphasizes language development at all levels. Given the current emphasis on Leaving No Child Behind, the text explores techniques and materials for helping below-level readers and writers. Included are listings of intervention programs for older struggling readers and suggestions for helping middle school students who are still having difficulty with decoding skills. With classrooms becoming increasingly diverse, the text details age-appropriate techniques for working with English language learners and at-risk students. Emphasis has also been placed on fostering comprehension and matching readers with appropriate texts. Because of the impact of the standards movement and related assessment issues, a full chapter is devoted to assessment. Lists of standards and assessment suggestions are provided at the end of each chapter on instructional techniques. Appendix B contains a series of informal measures of key skills.