This text provides students as well as practitioners with a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis. The authors emphasize the practical aspects of the techniques described. Topics discussed include user-controlled functions of scanning electron microscopes and x-ray spectrometers and the use of x-rays for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Separate chapters cover SEM sample preparation methods for hard materials, polymers, and biological specimens. In addition techniques for the elimination of charging in non-conducting specimens are detailed.